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BT301 PAST PAPERS

BT301 PAST PAPERS

 

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CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY WAQAR SIDHU.  ENG101 FINAL TERM SOLVED MCQS. CS403 CURRENT FINAL TERM PAPERS. CS101 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS205 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS204 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS304 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS311 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS401 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ

 

Polyploidy can cause difficulty with cell division
As we have seen earlier in our discussion of sex life cycle, both
The diploid and haploid nuclei can be separated by mitosis. Both multicellular diploid and multicellular haploid individuals develop from the single-celled initiation of mitosis. BT301 PAST PAPERS

In addition, mitosis can persist in diploid organisms.
when a chromosome is missing from one of the haploid clusters
or when there is an excessive copy of one of the chromosomes (
in people with Down syndrome). BT301 PAST PAPERS

Organisms with complete extra chromosomes can
sometimes produced by artificial breeding or natural
accidents. In some cases, triploid (3n), tetraploid
(4n), and higher-order polyploid nuclei may develop.

These floaty levels indicate an increase in the number
There are complete sets of chromosomes.
If the fetus has one or more chromosomes, abnormally high bleeding is inevitable.
In mitosis, each chromosome functions independently
Other. In meiosis, in contrast, homologous chromosomes must be together in order to start division. If a single chromosome is not homozygous, the Anabase I cannot send the representative
chromosomes at both poles.

A diploid embryo may undergo normal meiosis; Not possible by a haploid. Similarly, a
Each type of chromosome contains the same number of chromosomes in a tetraploid nucleus, so each chromosome can be linked to its homologue. Even then
Because a triploid embryo cannot undergo normal meiosis
One third of the chromosomes in the partners are defective.

This limitation has important consequences for fertility.
Triploid, tetraploid and other chromosomally abnormal organisms. Modern wheat breads are hexaploid, resulting from naturally occurring crosses with three distinct
Weeds, each with their own diploid set of 14 chromosomes.
In 10,000 years, people chose what they wanted
Varieties of these hybrids to form modern wheat varieties.
cell death.

As we mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, an important role
Cell division is the process of dividing cells into eukaryotic complexes
In humans, billions of cells die every day, mainly
Epithelial lining organs such as the blood and intestines.

Cells die in two ways. First, necrosis, when it occurs
Cells are damaged by toxins or starvation of essential nutrients. These cells usually swell and release their contents to the external environment. This
The process often causes inflammation.

Dandruff that forms around a wound is a familiar example.
Necrotic tissue. In general, cell death occurs in the organism
In apoptosis (from the Greek, “fell”). Apoptosis is a series of planned genetic events that lead to cell death.
The two modes of cell death were compared.

Why a cell initiates apoptosis is important
“Cell Suicide”? There are two possible reasons:
Jiva no longer needs Jiva. For example, before birth, the arms of a baby fetus are web-like and plus
Connective tissue between the fingers.

Working
Continuing, this unwanted tissue disappears into its own cells.
to apoptosis.

The longer the cells live, the more genetically affected they are
Damage leading to cancer. this is especially true
cells in the blood and intestines, exposed
High levels of toxic substances. Such cells usually die
After only days or weeks.

 

 

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