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BNK603 PAST PAPERS
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They stay this way until mitosis, when most of the cohesin is
removed, except in a region called the centromere at which
the chromatids are still held together.
A second group of proteins called condensins coats the DNA molecules at this time and makes them more compact.
The DNA in a typical human cell has a total length of 2
meters. Yet the nucleus is only 5 µm (0.000005 meters) in diameter. So, although the DNA in an interphase nucleus is
“unwound,” it is still impressively packed! This packing is
achieved largely by proteins associated closely with the
Chromosomes contain large quantities of proteins called
histones (from the Greek, “web”). There are five classes of
histones. All of them have a positive charge at cellular pH
levels because of their high content of the basic amino acids
lysine and arginine.
These positive charges electrostatically
attract the negative phosphate groups on DNA. These interactions, as well as interactions among the histones themselves, form beadlike units called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome contains the following components:
Eight histone molecules, two each of four of the histone
classes, united to form a core or spool.
146 base pairs of DNA, 1.65 turns of it wound around the
Histone H1 (the remaining histone class) on the outside
of the DNA, which may clamp it to the histone core.
During interphase, a chromosome is made up of a single
DNA molecule running around vast numbers of nucleosomes like beads on a string. Between the nucleosomes
stretches a variable amount of non-nucleosomal “linker”.
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