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BIT701 PAST PAPERS

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Interface and control of cell segments
A cell lives and functions until it divides or dies. or, if it is a
comet, it survives until it merges with another comet. Some
types of cells such as red blood cells, muscle cells, and nerves
Cells lose their ability to divide as they mature. BIT701 PAST PAPERS

other cells
Types such as cortical cells in plant stems rarely divide.
Some cells, such as cells in the developing embryo, are specialized for rapid division.
Between segments—that is, during its lifetime—a eukaryotic cell is in a state known as an interface. for most types
Cells, we can talk about the cell cycle with two phases: mitosis and interface. In this section, we will describe the cell
Cyclic events that occur during the interval, especially the “end” of entering mitosis. BIT701 PAST PAPERS

A given cell survives for one turn of the cell cycle and then becomes two cells. During the cell cycle, repeat
Again, persistent evidence of new cells. However, even in tissues that are involved in rapid growth, cells spend more time
at intervals. examining any collection of dividing cells,
It can be expressed by nerve endings or liver fragments.
The cells are often interfaced; Only a small percentage of cells are present in mitosis at any given time.
The interface consists of three subdivisions identified as G1.

S, and G2. The cell DNA is copied during the cell phase (the
s if set). The period between the end of mitosis and the beginning of the S phase is called the G1 or interval. Another phase interval – G2 – separates the end of the S phase and
The beginning of mitosis, when nuclear and cytoplasmic division takes place and two new cells are formed. mitosis and Cytokinesis is defined as the M phase of the cell cycle.

The process of DNA replication, we will describe
Chapter 11 ends at the end of the S phase. Where
Previously one chromosome, now two, came together and waited for two new cells through mitosis or meiosis.
Although one important event – DNA replication – dominates
and refers to the S phase required for the essential processes of the cell cycle
Space laid in stages.

The length of G1 varies relatively
in different types of cells. some rapid division of embryonic cells
Discard it completely, as the other cells are G1 . may be present in
week or even year. In many cases, these cells are a . enters into
The resting state is called G0. Special internal and external signs
A cell must leave G0 and re-enter the cell
Rotation for G1.

The biochemical specification of a G1 cell is that it prepares for S phase, so each chromosome at this stage is a single, unchangeable structure. It is in the G1-to-S transition
Promises to enter another cell cycle.
During G2, the cell prepares for mitosis
For example, by forming components of microtubules
It carries the chromosomes to the opposite end of the dividing cell. As chromosomes are copied in S phase, each chromosome is now composed of two identical sibling chromatids.

chakra and other proteins signaling events in the cell cycle
Appropriate decisions are made on whether to enter S or M levels
Made these changes – G1 to S and G2 to M –
Based on the activity of a type of protein called a cyclin-based kinase
CDK remember kinase is an enzyme
It promotes a phosphate exchange
group in another molecule from ATP; here it is
Phosphate exchange is called phosphorylation:
kinase.

Protein + ATP ——— Protein – B + ATP
What does phosphorylation do to proteins? Remember from Chapter 3 Proteins
Both parts are hydrophilic (there is a tendency to
to contact with outside water
macromolecular) and hydrophobic regions
(with the possibility of interacting with each other
macromolecule inside).

Regions are important in providing protein
Its three-dimensional shape. Phosphate
charged group, so an amino acid
Such a group turns out
Protein. Thus, the phosphorylation
Changes the shape and function of proteins. by promoting phosphorylation
Certain target proteins play a key role in initiating CDK cell stages
Round.

CDK cell division is a classic example of research in different organisms and diversity
Converting cell types into a single mechanism:
A team of scientists is studying the immature sea
Eggs, trying to figure out how they’re inspired
Split and form cooked eggs. factor – a protein called a stimulator that purifies the egg from maturation,
thereby promoting the separation of immature eggs.

Other scientists who have studied the cell cycle in the past have found that the single-celled eukaryote is a mutation.
Cdk deficiency in G1 – S range. This Eastern CDK
was found to be very similar to sea urchins
Factors promoting maturation.
Similar CDs have been readily found to control G1-to-S migration in many organisms, including humans.
But CDs don’t work by themselves.

On the contrary, they should
One binds to another type of protein called cyclins. This brand –
An example of allosteric regulation is to activate it by changing the shape of a CDK and exposing it to its active site.
It is a cyclin-CDK complex that acts as a protein kinase
Triggers the transition from G1 to phase S. then the cyclone broke out
down, and the CDK becomes inactive.

 

 

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