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BNK604 PAST PAPERS
BNK604 PAST PAPERS
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Since the DNA is exposed to this DNA nuclear environment,
It is accessible to proteins involved in its doubling.
control over its expression.
In both mitosis and meiosis, chromatin is
As nucleosomes come together and coil more and more, additional chromatin folds continue until chromosomes begin to fold. BNK604 PAST PAPERS
Mitosis: Distribution of proper copies
of genetic information
In mitosis, one embryo produces two embryos
Genetically identical to each other and to the original embryo.
This process ensures the precise distribution of multiple eukaryotic cell chromosomes in the offspring. I
In fact, mitosis is a continuous process in each event.
Next flows smoothly.
However, for discussion, it is
Convenient for viewing mitosis – the M phase of the cell cycle –
Series of individual events: Probes, Prometaphase,
Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.
Centrosomes determine the plane of cell division
Once resolved to enter mitosis,
The cell enters S phase, and the DNA is copied. At the same time,
In the cytoplasm, the nucleus (“middle body”), an organelle located near the nucleus, doubles and forms a pair
centroid. In many organisms, each centrosome forms
A pair of centrioles, each with nine . has a hollow tube
microtubules. Two tubes are at right angles to each other.
In the G2-to-M transition, the two centrosomes split
With each other, the nuclear envelope moves to the opposite end. determines the orientation of the centrosome
cell separation plane, and
hence the spatial relationship
Two new cells in the parent cell. This relationship can have minor consequences
single free cells, such as yeast
but cells need to be
A part of body tissue.
The material around the centrioles begins to form microtubules,
it will shape the chromosome
Speed. Plant cells do not have centrosomes,
But the specific centers of microtubule arrangement at both ends of the cell
Same character. microtubules are formed
spiral system required
systematic division of chromosomes
in the cell section.
Chromatids become visible and spiral
patterns during forecasting
at intervals, the nuclear envelope, the nucleus,
Partially visible problems of chromatin are visible under a light microscope. embryogenesis
Changes when the cell enters the proboscis – the beginning of mitosis. Most cochineals have two DNA components
Copy at once when the S grid is erased, so
Visible individual chromatids.
They still have a small amount of cocaine in the centromere. In late advance, specialized three-layer structures called kinetochores form in the central centromere,
for a chromatid. These structures will be important
each of the two centrosomes serves as a mitotic center, or
Polar, where chromosomes move. Microtubules form between each pole and chromosome
Create a loop that acts as a system for both
Chromosomes attach and form a structure that maintains
Both poles are far away. The spiral is actually two half loops:
Each polar microtubule runs from one pole to the center
The spiral, which connects the polar capillaries that extend from the other half of the spiral to each other. polar
capillaries are initially unstable, develop continuously and
fall until they come into contact with polar microtubules
The other half spiral is more stable.
There are two types of microtubules in the vortex:
Polar microtubules have multiple pairs
Centrioles can combine lengthwise with double subunits to form
The fibers are spread across the equatorial plate.
Kinetochore microtubules are attached to the kinetochore
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