BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS PDF

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BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS PDF

BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS PDF

 

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CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY WAQAR SIDHU.  ENG101 FINAL TERM SOLVED MCQS. CS403 CURRENT FINAL TERM PAPERS. CS101 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS205 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS204 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS304 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS311 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS401 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ

In principle, chemical reactions are going on and on
For example, if compound A can be modified to
In the mixture B (A → B), then B can, in principle, be converted into A (B → A), although at a given concentration of A
and b, only one of these instructions will take precedence. think about
general reaction that results from competition between
Forward and reverse reaction (A~B).

An increase in the concentration of the reaction (a) accelerates the forward reaction, and an increase in the concentration of the products (b) favors a further reverse reaction. At specific concentrations of A and B,
Forward and backward reactions occur at the same rate.

At this concentration, there is no further change in the computer web
Significantly, individual molecules are also being formed
and separated. The equilibrium between the forward and reverse reactions is called chemical equilibrium. is the chemical equilibrium steady state, net steady state and
State in state g = 0.

The balance of chemical and free energy is related to
Every chemical reaction goes to a certain extent, but does not
Need till the end. In other words, all reactions
There is no need to convert current into products.

Each reaction has a specific equilibrium and equilibrium
The point is related to the free energy released by the reaction under certain conditions. To understand the principle of equilibrium, consider the following example.
Most cells contain glucose 1-phosphate, which converts to glucose 6-phosphate in the cell.

Start with an aqueous solution of glucose 1-phosphate
0.02 square meter
Stable environmental conditions (25 C and pH 7).

as it is
Reaction slowly progresses towards equilibrium, concentration
The product, glucose 6-phosphate, increases from 0 to 0.019 M,
The concentration of the reaction, glucose 1-phosphate,
0.001 M., equilibrium was reached at this time.

Since then, the reverse reaction has proceeded at the same rate, from glucose 6-phosphate to glucose 1-phosphate.
further response.
Therefore, at equilibrium, the product-reaction ratio of this reaction is 19:1 (0.019 / 0.001), so the forward reaction
95 percent of the way to completion is lost (as in “right”)
written record).

Therefore, the forward reaction is an outward reaction. This result is obtained during the experiment
Run in similar conditions. response is described
the equation
Glucose 1-Phosphate Glucose 6-Phosphate
The conversion of free energy (∆G) of any reaction is related to
directly to its balance.

The maximum free energy to accomplish the equilibrium is
In an external reaction like the conversion is given
From glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate, G is a negative number (in this example, G = -1.7 kcal/mol, or -7.1
kJ/mol)
A big, positive G for a response means it’s going
Not nearly to the right (A → B). But if the product is present, then such a reaction is backward or “left” (A B),
(Almost all B’s are changed to A’s). A value of G close to zero is characteristic of an easily reversible reaction: the reactions and products have approximately the same free energy.

The principles of thermodynamics we discuss apply to all energy transfers in the universe, and so on.
Very powerful and effective. Next, we’ll use them for reactions in cells that contain trace amounts of the bioenergy, ATP.
ATP: Energy transfer in cells
All cells produce adenosine triphosphate or ATP.

Extraction and transfer of free energy required to do so
Chemical function and cell maintenance. ATP acts as a type
Currency currency. that means you can make money
work and then spend it on food, some free energy
Some published ergonomic reactions are elicited by ATP,
Interconic drive can release free energy
reactions.

ATP is produced by cells in several ways (which
will be described in the next two chapters), use
In many ways. ATP is not an unusual molecule. indeed it is
Another important application in the cell: it is called a . can be converted into
Construction modules for DNA and RNA.

but two things
This makes ATP particularly useful in cells: it releases little
high amount of energy during hydrolysis, and it can be phosphorylated (give a phosphate group) many
Molecules We will explore these two properties in the following discussion.
ATP hydrolysis releases energy
The ATP molecule is made up of the nitrogen base adenine.
tied to ribose (a sugar), tied in a row
in three phosphate groups .

hydrolysis
ATP provides ATP (adenosine diphosphate) and is a mineral
phosphate ion (abbreviation for HPO 24–), as well as
free energy:
ATP + H
2O → ADP + Pi + free energy
The main feature of this reaction is that it is lethal.
Releases free energy.

About the change in free energy (G)
-12 kcal/mol (-50 kJ/mol) temperature, pH and specific molecular concentration of cells. *
What are the properties of ATP for free energy from the loss of one of its phosphate groups? first and
Most importantly, phos . the free energy of the P-O bond between.

 

 

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