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BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES SOLVED
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Second law: not all energy can be used,
and the disease often progresses
The second law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed even if it is changed.
from one form to another, some of that energy is not available
In other words, there is no physical process
or chemical reactions are 100 percent efficient, not all
The released energy can be converted into work. have some energy
Lost as associated with the disease. The second law applies to all energy changes, but here we’ll note
Chemical reactions in living systems.
Not all power can be used.
In any system, there is energy which can do work at total energy
Unavailable energy is destroyed due to disease:
Total Energy = Available Energy + Unavailable Energy
In biological systems, the total energy is called the enthalpy (H).
The energy that can do work is called free energy (G).
Cells require free energy for all chemical reactions
cell growth, cell division and cell maintenance
Health. Available energy is denoted by entropy (S),
This disease is a systematic measure of multiplication
From absolute temperature (D).
So we can rewrite
and the term equation over a certain number
h = g + ds
Because we are interested in the available energy, we fix
g = h – ds
Although we can’t measure G, H, or S perfectly, we can
Determine the change of each at constant temperature.
Computer energy change is measured in calories (ft) or joules (J).
. Energy change is denoted by the Greek
The letter delta (∆). For example, the change in free energy (G)
Any chemical reaction is equal to the difference in the free energy between the products and the reactions.
Feedback = Content – Cretants.
Such a change can be positive or negative.
At constant temperature, G is basically defined as
Change in Total Energy (∆H) and Change in Entropy ()S):
g = h – ts
This equation tells us whether free energy is released or consumed by a chemical reaction:
If G is negative (<G<0), then the free energy will be free.
If G is positive (>G>0), then the free energy required is
If the required free energy is not available, the reaction is carried out
No depends on the identity and size of G.
There are two factors on the right side of the equation:
H: In a chemical reaction, H is the amount of total energy added to the system (∆H > 0) or released (∆H < 0).
Identity S: Based on the identity and size of S,
The absolute term, T∆S, can be negative or positive, large or
Small. In other words, in standard settings
Temperature (no change in T), strength and signal.
The change in ENTG entropy can be relied upon quite a bit. Great
The change in entropy reverses the G value.
The word T∆S is preceded by a negative sign.
If a chemical reaction increases entropy, the substance
More erratic or random than the responses. something
By hydrolysis of more substances than by reactions, i.e. amino acids of proteins, the products have better kinetic freedom. Disease in an amino solution
Acids are larger than proteins
Any peptide bonds and other forces prevent free movement. Hence, there will be a change in entropy (S) in hydrolysis.
The less material there is, the more they are suppressed
In their movements rather than reactions, S is negative.
For example, a large protein bound by a peptide bond has less
hundreds or more independent of its movements than its solution
Thousands of amino acids are synthesized from it.
The second law of thermodynamics about probability predicts that morbidity will increase as a result of a change in energy. chemical change, physical change,
and all biological processes have a tendency to increase entropy
So there is a tendency for disorder or dissonance (Figure 6.2b).
Gives direction to the increasing trend of disease
in physical processes and chemical reactions. it explains
Why do some reactions continue in one direction?
One more thing.
How does the second law apply to organisms? Consider
Human body with complex structures made up of simple molecules. complex growth
Clearly contradicts the second law. but this
not the case! 1 kg is required to build a human body
About 10 kg of organic material can be metabolized and
In the process of converting CO2, H2O and other simple
molecules, and these changes require more energy.
It causes more diseases than metabolic sequence
1 kg of meat Life requires constant energy to maintain order. There is no contradiction in the second law
Having seen how the physical laws of energy apply to living beings, we will now consider how
Laws apply to biochemical reactions.
chemical reactions release or absorb energy
In cells, anabolic reactions can produce a product
as proteins in many smaller (higher-order materials)
Reactions like amino acids (less stable).
Energy requirement or consumption. Catabolic reactions may be affected
Below is an ordered reaction similar to the glucose molecule
Small, random distribution of carbon-like material
dioxide and water. Such reactions provide strength. Other
In words, some reactions emit free energy, while others capture it.
Energy level emitted (-∆G) or removed (+G)
A reaction is directly related to the tendency to end the reaction (all reaction points
converted into products):
running to perfection without reaction
No power input. These responses are published for free
The energy is called external and has a negative G. It happens
Reactions that continue after completion
Adding free energy from the environment is enterogenic and positive G .
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