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Moving up to the altitude, we landed on the LEO (Low-Earth Orbit) satellites. large, because of their fast speed
The number required for a complete system. On the other hand, because the satellites are so close
Earth and ground stations do not require much energy, and travel time delays are only a few milliseconds. I
This section will review three examples, two focusing on voice communication and one focusing on the Internet.

As mentioned above, during the first 30 years of the satellite era, low orbit satellites were rarely used.
In the 1990s, Motorola quickly built new ground with and without Zip, filing an application with the FCC.
The Iridium Project seeks permission to launch 77 low orbit satellites (element 77 is Iridium). plan is
Eventually only 66 satellites were turned over for use, so the project should be renamed Dysprosium (element 66).

Maybe it hurts. When the satellite disappears,. Others will change it. The project started with other communication companies in the food rush. All a Suddenly, everyone wants to launch a series of low orbit satellites.
After seven years of partner integration and funding, the partners launched the Iridium satellite.
1997. Communication service was started in November 1998.

Unfortunately big, Heavy Business Needs. Satellite phones are rare as mobile phone networks have grown rapidly since the 1990s. As a result, Iridium did not turn a profit and was pushed into a higher loss in August 1999.
Amazing corporate events in history. Satellites and other assets (worth $5 billion) are next It was bought by an investor in a one-of-a-kind craze sale for $25 million. Iridium is service Relaunched in March 2001.

Iridium’s business (and) provides global telecommunications services using mobile devices
Communicate directly with Iridium satellites. It provides voice, data, paging, fax and navigation services
Anywhere on land, sea and air. Clients include the marine, aviation and oil exploration industries.
People traveling to parts of the world without telecommunications infrastructure (such as deserts,
mountains, forests and some third world countries).

The Iridium satellites orbit at an altitude of 750 km. They are set in chains to the north-west, one satellite for every 32 degrees of latitude. With six satellite chains located around the world. Closed by Globalstar. An alternative design to Iridium is the Globalstar. It is based on 48 LEO satellites but uses a different type Project instead of Iridium. When sending calls from satellite to satellite, it requires sophistication. To carry equipment to satellites, GlobalStar uses a traditional curved-tube design.

The North Pole is returned to the world and transported by the large ground station to Santa’s workshop. The call is routed through the terrain network to the ground station nearest to the caller and transmitted through the winding pipe as shown. The advantage of this method is that it eliminates most of the problems, easy to manage. Also, the use of larger ground station antennas will produce a stronger signal And to get weak mechanism, you can use low power phone.phone is dying only a few milliwatts of power, so the signal to the ground station is relatively weak powered by satellite.

Iridium is targeted at phone users located in attractive areas. Our next example, Teledesic, is targeted at
Frequency hungry internet users around the world. It was developed in 1990 by mobile phone pioneer Greece
Mecca and Microsoft founder Bill Gates aren’t happy with speed snails on phones around the world
Companies provide more bandwidth for computer users. The purpose of the teletechnic system is to provide
Millions of parallel Internet users with uplink up to 100 Mbps and downlink up to 720 Mbps
Using a smaller, standard, VSAT type antenna, it bypassed the phone system altogether. with telephone companies,
It’s buy-in-the-sky.

The original design for a system with 288 small satellite footprints was arranged in 12 plans below.
Lower Van Allen Belt at an altitude of 1350 km. This was later changed to 30 satellites with long tracks.
It is relatively congested and spreads through the air. system pocket pocket
Space, each satellite is capable of directing packets to nearby satellites. When the user needs bandwidth
To send the packet, it needed mobility for 50 msec and was assigned. This system is coming live
If everything goes as planned in 2005. VU PAST PAPERS STA ALL SUBJECTS

The comparison between satellite communication and terrestrial communication is instructive. recently number 20
Many years ago a case was made that the future of communication depends on communication satellites. after all,
The telephone system has changed little in the last 100 years and will not change in the next 100 years
years. This glacier movement is no small area that controls where the phone is companies are expected to provide better voice service at a reasonable price (they did) in return Guaranteed return on their investment. For those who have data to send, a 1200-bps modem is available.

The introduction of competition in the United States in 1984 and, to a lesser extent, Europe, changed all that.
Serious. Telephone companies have begun to replace their remote fiber networks and introduce higher bandwidth services such as ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line). They also stopped long-term training.