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BIO503 PAST PAPERS

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CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY WAQAR SIDHU.  ENG101 FINAL TERM SOLVED MCQS. CS403 CURRENT FINAL TERM PAPERS. CS101 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS205 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS204 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS304 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS311 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS401 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ

 

Primary and secondary active transport
rely on different energy sources
There are two main types of active transport processes:
Primary active transport requires the direct participation of energy-rich ATP.
Secondary active traffic does not use ATP directly;

Instead, its energy is supplied by a gradient of ion concentration established by primary active transport. In primary active transport, the energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP induces movement against specific ions.

A concentration gradient, for example, if we compare
Concentrations of potassium ions (K+) and sodium ions (Na+)
Inside a nerve cell and in the fluid that bathes the nerve, K+
The concentration is higher inside the cell, whereas Na+
Concentration is more on the outside. However, nerve cells have a protein Na + out and K + in. continues to inject
This ensures that the slope is maintained, as opposed to the concentration gradient. This sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump.

It is found in all animal cells and is an integrated glycoprotein membrane. It breaks down the ATP molecule into ADP
phosphate (Pi) and two K+. uses the energy released to move
ions and three Na+ ions into the cell.

 

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