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BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS
BIO503 MIDTERM PAST PAPERS
CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY WAQAR SIDHU. ENG101 FINAL TERM SOLVED MCQS. CS403 CURRENT FINAL TERM PAPERS. CS101 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS205 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS204 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS304 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS311 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS401 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ
energy and energy change
Physicists refer to energy as the ability to do work
It occurs when a force acts on an object at a distance.
It would be very useful to consider energy in biochemistry
ability to change. No cell produces energy – all living things
To take energy from the environment.
Actually, one of them
The basic laws of physics cannot create or destroy energy. However, it can be replaced by energy
one type is the other, and cells conduct many of these
energy change. Energy changes are linked
For chemical changes in cells – The
breaking of chemical bonds, movement of materials
membrane, and so on.
Changes in energy are related to changes in matter
Energy comes in many forms, such as chemical energy and light.
energy and mechanical power. But all kinds of energies are possible
It can be considered one of two main types:
Kinetic energy is the force of motion.
The energy that changes the position or motion of an object does work. It can take the form of heat, light, electrical energy,
and mechanical strength, among other things.
Potential energy is the energy of a state or state – ie.
stored energy. It can be hidden in a chemical bond
concentration gradient, and electrical energy, in addition
The water stored behind the dam has energy potential. When
Water is released from the dam, some part of this energy
converted into a moving force, which can be used
do the work.
In addition, fatty acids store chemical energy in their C-C-H bonds and C-C bonds, and that energy
to be published for work on biochemistry.
Two types of metabolic reactions occur in all cells of all organisms:
anabolic reactions (anabolism) are simple together
Molecules that make up the most complex molecules. The synthesis of proteins from amino acids is an anabolic reaction.
Anabolic reactions require energy input and this is captured in the chemicals being manufactured.
catabolic reactions (catabolism) are complex
Molecules are simpler and release energy
Will be stored in chemical bonds.
Catabolic and anabolic reactions are often combined. The energy released in catabolic reactions is used for anabolic flow.
Reactions – that is, doing biological work.
cellular functions such as growth, movement and function
The transport of ions across the membrane requires energy, and
None of them can continue without a source of energy. I
In the following discussion, we will explore the physics
The laws governing all energy transformations identify the energy available to produce biological work and consider the direction of the energy flow.
First Law: Energy is not created or destroyed
Energy can be transferred from one form to another. For example, by hitting a match, you change the chemical energy.
Energy in light and heat. first law of thermodynamics
The energy in such an energy change is called a
created or removed.
The first law states that energy is changed by any force
Second, the total energy before and after the change
As you will see in the next two chapters, the potential energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates
and convert lipids into potential energy
of ATP. This energy is used to generate potential energy in the form of a concentration gradient established by active transport, and can be converted into a moving force and
Earlier they used to do mechanical work like contraction of muscles.
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