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MGT402 PAST PAPERS
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In this example, M is split into two parts, M1
Layer 3 decides which outgoing line to use and forwards the packet to layer 2. Layer 2 not only adds a
Header for each piece, but also a trailer, and delivers the resulting unit to Layer 1 for physical transmission.
The receiving machine moves the message upwards, from layer to layer, as the header is removed.
makes progress. For layers below n no headers are passed to layer n.
The important thing to understand about Figure 1-15 is the relationship between virtual and real communication.
And the difference between protocol and interface. The peer processes in layer 4, for example, conceptually.
Think of their communication as “horizontal” using Layer 4 protocols. each having one is a possibility
process that called something like SendToOtherSide and GetFromOtherSide even though these processes
In fact 3/4 communicate with the lower layers in the interface, not the other way around.
Peer process abstraction is critical to all network design. Using it, the unbearable task of designing
The entire network can be broken down into several small, manageable design problems, namely, the design of
individual layers. Design issues for layers. Some of the major design problems that occur in computer networks exist in multiple layers.
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