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ECO402 PAST PAPERS

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CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY WAQAR SIDHU.ENG101 FINAL TERM SOLVED MCQS.CS403 CURRENT FINAL TERM PAPERS.CS101 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS201 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ MEGA FILE. CS205 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS204 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS. CS301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS304 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS311 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ. CS401 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS BY MOAAZ

 

Mutations can be spontaneous or induced
It is useful to differentiate between the two types of mutation.
because of them. spontaneous mutation is permanent
Genetic changes that occur without external influence. In other words, they occur because the cell machine is not working properly. induced mutations occur
When some agent outside the cell – a mutation – is caused by a
Permanent change in DNA.

Spontaneous mutation can occur in several ways:
The four nucleotide sites of DNA are relatively unstable.
They can come in two different forms (called tautomers).

One of them is common and one is rare. When a base temporarily forms its rare tautomer, it can be attached to another site. For example, if C is usually connected to G but not to C
DNA is in its rare tautomer when copied
Pairing (and entering DNA polymerase) a. NS
The result is a point change: G → A
The sites may change due to a chemical reaction. For example, the loss of an amino group in cytosine (called a reaction)
deafness) forms uracil. When copying DNA, instead
Just opposite to C, DNA polymerase A adds
(original pair with u).

DNA polymerases make a mistake in the reflection (see chapter)
1 1); For example, entering T as opposed to G
These errors are corrected by the verification process
Complicated copy, but some mistakes are avoided and
will be permanent
Meiosis is not correct.

There may be a shortage of lead
with one or more chromosomes. random chromosome break
and merge, delete, copy and create again
Inversion, or, when involving non-homologous chromosomes, translocation.
Mutants can mutate DNA in several ways:

 

 

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