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Planned crosses and counting of multiple offspring. ni ngo
These methods are possible in humans. People have therefore relied on genetically ancestral, family trees that show the presence of phenotypes (and alleles) in individuals for many generations.
because people have very few children.

Humans do not reflect the exact proportions of phenotypes of the offspring Mendel observed in his pea plants (see
Table 10.1). For example, when two different people with a regressive allele (such as aa) marry,
For each of their children, there is a 25 percent chance
The child will have a regressive homozygote (AA).

Too many
In the case of marriage, a quarter of all children are regressive homozygous (AA). but the descendants of monogamous marriages
It’s too low to show exactly one-quarter ratio. In a family with only two children, for example, both
Could be AA (or AA, or AA).

To remove this ambiguity, human geneticists assume
Any allele that causes an abnormal phenotype is rare
human population. This means that if some members
There is a rare allele in the given family, probably not
Marrying outside that family would be very rare
allelia.

Anthropologists may be asked to determine whether a particularly rare allele dominates or recesses. Figure 10.10 shows
Descendants showing a hereditary form of a rare dominant allele. Following are the main features
Like Ancestors:

Everyone affected has a victim parent.
Nearly half the children of the affected parent
Influenced.
The phenotype occurs equally in both sexes.
Compare this format with Figure 10.11, which shows
Inheritance of a rare recessive allele:
Affected people usually do not have two parents.
Influenced.

About a quarter of affected families have children
Affected parents may be affected.
The phenotype occurs equally in both sexes.
In the lineage showing the regenerative phenotype,
It is not unusual for two relatives to get married. This
This pattern is the result of a rare rise of the recessive allele.
of abnormal phenotypes. In order to obtain a child (b) affected by two phenotypically normal parents, both parents must be present
Heterozygous (AA).

If a specific recessive allele is rare
General public, possibility of marriage of two people
Relatively few carry both alleles. On the other hand, if
The allele is in a family and may be shared by two relatives (see .)
Fig. 10.10). This is why the demography is culturally isolated (by religion, like the Amish)
America) or geography (like the islands) is very important to human genetics. In these groups they are adults
family, or to marry himself, or both.

Reasons for the main use of ancestral analysis
In the clinical evaluation and counseling of patients with hereditary abnormalities, a couple
Alleles are usually followed. However, as
Inheritance analysis showing the separation of alleles, which may also show independent taxonomic
If two different allele pairs are considered.

Alleles and their interactions
In many cases, alleles do not show simplicity.
The relationship between dominance and regression that we have described. In others, a
A single allele can have multiple phenotypic effects. Replacing existing alleles will create new alleles, so there can be multiple alleles
single employee.

 

 

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